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THE IMPROVEMENT 

OF 

CONEY ISLAND, ROGKAWAY 

AND 

SOUTH BEACHES 




/ 



DEPARTMENT OF PARKS 

CITY OF NEW YORK 



Ex IGtbrtfi 



SEYMOUR DURST 




IVhen you leave, please leave this book 

Because it has been said 
" Ever'thinQ comes t him who waits 

Except a loaned book." 



Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library 
Gift of Seymour B. Di rst Old York Library 



THE IMPROVEMENT 

OF 

CONEY ISLAND, ROCKAWAY 

AND 

SOUTH BEACHES 




DEPARTMENT OF PARKS 
CITY OF NEW YORK 

November 30. 1937 



I ft. 3 £ 



Box -i \ 



31A-2 



ROBERT MOSES 

COMMISSIONER 




The City of New York 
Department of Parks 



ALLYN R. JENNINGS 

GENERAL SUPERINTENDENT 

WILLIAM H. LATHAM 

PARK ENGINEER 

GEORGE E. SPARGO 

ASSISTANT TO THE COMMISSIONER 

WILLIAM R. C. WOOD 

SENIOR PARK DIRECTOR 

JAMES A. SHERRY 

CHIEF CLERK 



Hon. Fiorello H. LaGuardia November 50, 1937 

Mayor of the City of New York 
City Hall, New York, N. Y. 

Dear Sir: 

In a recent opinion on the redistribution of functions under the new City Charter, the Corporation 
Counsel has ruled that the beaches and boardwalks at Coney Island, Rockaway and South Beach, 
Staten Island, now under the jurisdiction of the respective Borough Presidents of Brooklyn, Queens and 
Richmond, are transferred to the Department of Parks on January 1st, 1938. 

At the present time the Park Department has a small park area at Coney Island known as Seaside 
Park including the old Dreamland parking field, which has been converted into a playground. All the 
rest of the beach and the entire boardwalk have been under the control of the Borough President of 
Brooklyn. At Rockaway, the Park Department has had jurisdiction over Jacob Riis Park and the Marine 
Parkway, and also over a comparatively small section of the beach and boardwalk between Beach 1 26th 
Street and Beach 110th Street. At South Beach the Park Department has had no responsibility, the 
park beaches being located to the southwest at Great Kills and Wolfe's Pond. 

The transfer of the Borough Presidents' beaches to the Park Department will bring with it heavy re- 
sponsibilities, because these beaches and boardwalks were never properly planned, and cannot under 
present conditions be properly maintained and operated. 

The his tory of the beach at Coney Island is a sad commentary on the lack of foresight of the citizens 
of some of the communities now making up the City of New York. The lands and lands under water 
originally belonged to the old town of Gravesend, and they were sold off about the year 1 878, and almost 
always on the basis of some deal with private interests, and always at a preposterously low price. After 
these immensely valuable and indispensable community assets had been virtually given away, transpor- 
tation improved, summer colonies sprang up, and an all-year-round population followed. Later the pub- 
lie had to buy back or condemn at fabulous expense a small and restricted part of what it should never 
have given away. 

A review of the history of acquisition of land by the city, and construction of improvements in Coney 
Island, indicates that the public authorities were actuated more by a desire to please the large property 
owners than to provide proper accommodations for the public. The boardwalk was constructed too near 
the water without providing any play areas on the north side. The intensive use of the private play areas 
at Brighton Beach and the park area west of the Municipal Bathhouse shows the need for more space 
dedicated to play. When sand was pumped in to increase the width of the beach, instead of obtaining 
good white material, the contractor was allowed to deposit brown sand on the beach. Streets were cut 
through which dead-ended at the boardwalk, and which are no good as traffic arteries and are not proper 
parking spaces. The zoning ordinance was adapted to the wishes of the property owners rather than to 
the requirements of the public welfare. For years Coney Island was known principally as an artificial 



[5] 



amusement center, but of late years the mechanical amusement business Ins been gradually decreasing. 
Bathing establishments also have been subject to this trend. 

From the point of view of responsible real estate owners, bank and other [ending institutions, corpora- 
tions rendering essential services, substantial business people with a continuing year-round stake in the 
community, not to speak ol the city s financial and tax-collecting agencies, the decline of actual as distin- 
guished from assessed valuations ol property, and other unmistakable signs of decay, are becoming more 
and more disquieting. There is always a tendency in such situations to deny or evade the lacts; to attempt 
to block or bluster it through; or to blame everything on the depression, and assume that generally im- 
proved conditions will be reflected at the beaches. The absentee landlord, ol course, cares nothing about 
the health of his community, but is only concerned with getting a return on his investment, and he has done 
irreparable damage in recent years by destroying natural advantages for quick and easy returns. The 
blindness of responsible local people and institutions is much harder to explain. I he city has contributed 
its part to the breakdown by pyramiding assessments to preposterous heights, thus making it difficult, if 
not impossible, to make proper adjustments as the gap between fictitious and real values becomes broader 
and more menacing. Similarly, it has been more and more diffh nit lor the city to enforce proper standards 
for sanitation, health, housing, fire, policing, transportation and traffic, because the enforcement of such 
standards would make it even more difficult lor owners to make their property pay, and to avoid tax liens. 
As this and other resorts like it run down, the newer and better-run bea< hes like Jacob Riis Park, Orch aid 
Beach, the state and county beaches in the suburbs, and the better-run private beaches, have drawn 
away from the older resorts like Coney Island and Roc kaway, many ol the old patrons who could afford 
to go elsewhere, and who prefer less crowded, more orderly, and better planned shore resorts. 

There is no use bemoaning the end of the old Coney Island fabled in song and story. I he important 
thing is not to proceed in the mistaken belief that it can be revived. There must be a new and very dif- 
ferent resort established in its place. The same applies to Rockaway Beach and to South Beach. I he 
value of these beaches and boardwalks is still incalculable, and can be increased rather than diminished 
by forthright and intelligent action. There must be more land in public ownership, less overcrowding, 
stricter enforcement of ordinances and rules, better transportation and traffic arrangement, less mechan- 
ical noise-making and amusement devices and side shows, and a more orderly growth of year-round resi- 
dents, and an increasing respect for permanent, as distinguished from temporary values. All this can be 
brought about only by the close cooperation of city officials and responsible local groups and interests. 
This will not be accomplished overnight, but only over a period of several years. Public money alone will 
not do it, and there will have to be public sacrifices on the part of private interests looking to long-range 
rather than to immediate results. 

Any future plan for Coney Island must be based on the supposition that most of the summer patrons 
will come by rapid transit; that they will have comparativel V little money to spend on mechanical amuse- 
ments, and that more and more they will come for exercise and healthy outdoor recreation. 

At Rock away the entire westerly end of the peninsula was at one time owned by the State of New 
York, but through the bungling of public officials, private interests managed to tie the property up in liti- 
gation and finally obtained an act of the legislature settling the litigation in their favor for $20,000. Later 
the State paid over $2,000,000 for the acquisition of the land conveved to theU nited States, which is now 
maintained by the Federal Government as Fort Tilden, and which was only a part of what the State 
had formerly owned. When plans were made for the city to acquire the beach at Rockaway extending 
from Jacob Riis Park to the Nassau County line, private owners had sustained such losses by encroach- 
ments caused bv ocean storms, and values were so reduced, that estimates were made that the whole 
acquisition would cost the city $1,250,000. W hen the condemnation awards were made they amounted 



[4] 



to $16,000,000. On appeal these were reduced to about $12,000,000, but in the meantime the interest 
had accumulated so that the cost to the city was still close to $16,000,000. 

The Town of Hempstead at the beginning of this century, by votes of the people, conveyed to real 
estate operators the whole of Long Beach for about $225,000. The same thing would probably have 
happened at Jones Beach if the Long Island State Park Commission had not come along with a plan 
for developing this under public auspices. 

Excepting Jones Beach, and a few other well-planned shore developments, the history of public 
beaches here and elsewhere on the Atlantic seaboard has followed the same unfortunate pattern. Instead 
of obtaining an adequate amount of beach and setting the boardwalk well back of the high water mark 
and controlling all frontage on it, the municipality acquired only a narrow shoestring of sand, put the 
boardwalk on top of high water, and permitted the entire frontage on the outside of the boardwalk to be 
in private hands. The boardwalks were almost always placed so close to the ocean that no adequate 
space was left for bathing, making it necessary to build expensive jetties to protect what little beach 
remained. Not only did a most uneven development spring up adjacent to the boardwalk, but buildings 
were so constructed that there were entrances to stores and restaurants under the boardwalk. Little, if 
any, attention was paid to fire hazards or health rules. Shacks of all kinds were built just back of the 
boardwalk for summer use, some of them nothing more or less than tent colonies. Amusement and catch- 
penny devices of all kinds were installed adjacent to the boardwalk. For a time some of these beaches 
flourished. Then they began to go downhill, and the more substantial buildings and enterprises suffered 
along with the poorer ones. 

I have given most careful study to the three beaches now being transferred to the Park Department. 
The drastic changes which would be required to bring about a real reconstruction of Coney Island on 
sound planning principles, have been found too expensive to carry out. The sums required to wipe out 
all the frontage on the boardwalk, move it back, and provide adequate play and parking spaces and 
municipal bathhouses, is simply beyond the means of the city at this time, and I have not been able to 
discover any basis on which an Authority could be set up for Coney Island to issue bonds on anything 
approaching a self-liquidating basis. The plan proposed for Coney Island is a modest one, which can 
meet only the most urgent needs of the situation. 

At Rockaway, the cost of solving the beach, boardwalk, parkway, highway, bridge access and parking 
problems is not nearly so high, and while a complete solution on anything approaching a sound busi- 
ness basis is impossible at this time, a compromise can, I believe, be worked out which will go a long way 
toward producing a satisfactory and orderly development for both local people and visitors. 

At South Beach, Staten Island, there is still an opportunity to clean up the entire problem, wipe out 
undesirable private ownership back of the boardwalk, establish adequate highway approaches and 
parking fields, and provide for future bathhouse and recreational developments, all of which should 
have been done before the boardwalk was built. 

The Coney Island plan involves straight city expenditures. The only substantial financial return will 
be from parking charges. The same thing applies to South Beach. The Rockaway plan, on the other 
hand, will require both city money and additional funds from the sale of revenue bonds. 

In the following pages the three plans are outlined. 

CONEY ISLAND 

The most serious problems at Coney Island are overcrowding at tbe public beach, inadequate play 
areas, and lack of parking space. 

Between Stillwell Avenue and Ocean Parkway the boardwalk is so close to the ocean that practically 
no beach remains at high tide, and comparatively little at low tide. Here it is proposed to acquire land 
ranging up to a depth of 400 feet of frontage north of the boardwalk, to move the boardwalk back a 



[5] 



maximum of 300 leel, to retain about 100 feet north ol the boardwa Ik lor {James and protection, and to 
widen the beach with new fill. Exbibi ts attached hereto show what is proposed to be done li tbis plan is 
carried out, tbis most congested portion of tbe beeich will be more tban doubled in area. Tbe new bea< h 
supplied will amount to about 15% of the total beach at Coney Island, and will alford accommodations 
for thousands of people, and the present congestion will be greatly relieved. 

As to the area east of the Municipal Bathhouse, it is proposed to develop it in the same way as the 
playground to the west. As to parking, it is proposed to acquire ten acres for a parking field north of 
Surf Avenue at some location not involving frontage on the main highway, but accessible to main streets. 
This parking held will bring a substantial return to the city, and will help pay the cost of the operation 
of the beach. It is possible that this parking space may in part be provided by cooperating with the Board 
of Transportation, which has planned a station for the city-owned subwav at Conev Island. 

The ab ove plan offers some solution of the bad conditions prevailing today at this beach. If anything 
is really to be accomplished, a strict enforcement of police, building, fire and health regulations on the 
beach and adjacent areas must be provided. 

The estima ted cost of the land taking above outlined is $2,850,000 and for parking spaces about 
$1,000,000 the cost of demolishing the old buildings on this property, relocating the boardwalk, pro- 
viding recreation areas, and improving the jetties and the beach is $1,500,000. 

ROCKAWAY BEACH 

The most serious problems at Rockaway Beach are lack of sufficient traffic arteries, lack of parking 
spaces, and the necessity for widening the beach area and protecting it Irom erosion. The present dilapi- 
dated buildings adjoining the boardwalk, and the crowded old frame tenements and rooming houses on 
the streets leading to the boardwalk, are a fire and health menace. Street congestion is so bad at times that 
fire apparatus answering alarms is brought to a standstill. 

On many occasions during the summer, thousands of cars are backed up for miles because of the 
bottle -necks on the Cross Bay Boulevard, the numerous crossings at grade on the Long Island Rail road 
along the entire Rockaway peninsula, and the lack of adequate east and west highwav accommodations. 

The plan at Rockaway Beach calls for a widening of the bridge over Beach Channel on the Cross Bay 
Boulevard, and the elevation of the Long Island Railroad so as to eliminate all grade crossings. A plaza 
is proposed connecting the Cross Bay Boulevard with the boardwalk, and a new east and west artery 
along the north side of the boardwalk from Beach 109th Street to Beach 73rd Street. This calls for an 
acquisition of land adjacent to the boardw alk to a depth of 200 feet, 100 feet of which wi II be left for the 
protection of the boardw r aIk and the beach for game areas, and for the ultimate construction of two. 
municipal bathhouses with adjoining parking spaces. One hundred feet will be used for a marginal 
boulevard with two roadways separated by a center panel, and with a sidewalk on the north. 

Despite the jetties all along the beach, erosion has occurred, and ultimately the beach will have to be 
increased in area by building longer jetties and pumping in fill. The city has just let a contract for rebuild- 
ing the jetties between Beach 80th and Beach 60th Streets, which will take care of the worst area for the 
present. 

It is proposed to expedite the elimination of grade crossings on the railroad line through the Rocka- 
ways by obtaining for this purpose 100 per cent State funds by an amendment to the Constitution to be 
proposed at the Constitutional Convention next summer. This amendment will eliminate the railroad 
and city s contribution and will facilitate the acquisition of the line by the city. It is also proposed to 
acquire parking fields at appropriate distances east and west of Cross Bay Boulevard to accommodate a 
total of about 2,000 cars, and to provide for parking cars under the entire elevated structure. 

It is estimated that by placing a toll on the Cross Bay Boulevard sufficient moneys can be obtained to 



[6] 



finance a substantial part of these improvements. This is predicated on the assumption that it will he 
difficult to obtain moneys for the widening of Cross Bay Boulevard and the construction of the traffic 
plaza in any other way. Marine Parkway Authority is collecting tolls on the bridge from Flatbush Ave- 
nue to Jacob Riis Park to pay interest and amortize a loan of $6,000,000 used to construct the bridge 
and incidental improvements. It is estimated that by extending the powers of the Authority and authoriz- 
ing it to collect tolls at the reconstructed Beach Channel Bridge on Cross Bay Boulevard, its bond issue 
may be increased sufficiently to provide the funds to widen Cross Bay Boulevard Bridge, and to construct 
the other improvements above-mentioned. It may also be desirable to combine the Henry Hudson Park- 
way Authority with the extended Marine Parkway Authority so that all three bridges and their related 
improvements will be covered by one bond issue. 

The estimated cost of the land necessary for the plaza from Cross Bay Boulevard to the boardwalk 
is $750,000. The cost of the land necessary for the road bordering on the boardwalk is $3,600,000. The 
estimated cost of land for the parking fields recommended is $675,000. The present plan to extend Beach 
Channel Drive and widenings of Beach 109th and Beach 73rd Street now shown on the City Map 
should be expedited. The cost of constructing the widening of Cross Bay Boulevard, and eliminating the 
grade crossing at its southerly end is $2,500,000. The cost of reconstructing the plaza is $500,000, and 
the cost of constructing the road along the north side of the boardwalk and improving the beach is 
$1,500,000. It is proposed that the land cost be paid by the city, and the construction cost, $4,500,000, be 
provided by bond issue of an Authority, as above outlined. 

The whole Rockaway peninsula should be immediately placed within the fire limits, as plans have 
been and will continue to be filed for the construction and reconstruction of dangerous frame structures, 
such as those destroyed in two recent fires. A considerable part of the area between the boardwalk and 
Rockaway Beach Boulevard should be rezoned for residential purposes, as there is entirely too much 
property zoned for business purposes. Parking and police regulations should be strictly enforced on the 
publicly owned areas. It will be necessary, also, to provide strict enforcement of police, fire and health 
regulations on the properties in private ownership. 

When the city acquires the Rockaway branch of the Long Island Railroad and the fare is reduced, 
there can be no question but that the number of excursionists coming for the day, as well as the number 
of summer and all-the-year-round residents will increase greatly. The last census showed that Queens 
County is the second fastest growing county in the United States, and improved transit cannot fail to 
draw more people to the Rockaways. Street traffic and beach conditions will become intolerable unless 
additional roadways, parking spaces and a wider beach area are now provided. 

SOUTH BEACH 

As early as 1934, I protested vigorously against the development of South Beach in the interest of 
local real estate developers, and declined to consider the boardwalk scheme when it was proposed to me 
by local real estate promoters. Subsequently when the Commissioners of the Land Office at Albany 
asked my opinion as to the granting of state land under water for this project, I strongly advised against 
it. When the State granted the lands under water, I protested to at least two of the Federal Works 
Progress Administrators against the use of relief funds to build the boardwalk and beach under the con- 
ditions fixed by the promoters in dedicating their frontage to the city. 

In communications to the Federal Administrators in 1935, I made this statement, the truth of which 
can be fully realized today: 

"All boardwalks ol this kind have For iheir purposeleaving the public only a narrow and often sub- 
merged strip of sand between high and low water at the outside of the boardwalk, and permitting private 
owners to capitalize all the Irontage on the other side by building shops, cheap hotels, restaurants, 
bathing pavilions, and even tent colonies. The strip of beach left to the public is always unmanageable. 



[7] 



It cannot be properly policed or kept clean. It is overcrowded. While some temporary real estate values 
may be built up and taxes collected by the city, in the end the development collapses and becomes a 
mess. This is the history of every beach on the south shore ol Long Island up to Jones Beach. The pur- 
pose of the scheme always is to capitalize every square inch ol privately-owned property on the inside 
ol the boardwalk, and to leave the public with nothing ol permanent value. In almost all cases the board- 
walk is built so near the w ater that it, and the buildings back ol it, become undermined, and then the whole 
undertaking can be saved only by the building of enormously expensive and ugly jetties, breakwaters 
and groins. 

Previous to the construction of this boardw.dk there bad been an old boardwalk a bout 100 b et w est 
of the new one. This was bui It on the ground level and is now in such bad repair thai it is dangerous to 
walk upon. It is flanked on the west side by old dilapidated amusement places constilule a fire and 
health menace. These buildings are, il anything in worse condition than those at Coney Island and 
Rockaway. Despite the protests I pressed and the conditions existing along the old boardwalk, the new 
one was constructed with no safeguards against another like development. 

There are already striking evidences at South Beach of the prophesied deterioration through unla\ 01 
able private developments back ol the boardwalk. The same uncontrolled development is about to take 
place adjacent to this boardwalk which bordered the old one, and which has taken place at Coney Island 
and Rockaway, and in a few years the expense of getting rid of these eyesores, nuisances and encroach- 
ments will be prohibitive. The only answer is to acquire all privately-owned property now from the board- 
walk to the present Seaside Boulevard. The acquisition of this property will protect the boardwalk, pro- 
vide additional beach, afford space for games, and substantial parking areas, and also for future bath- 
houses, and will permit the widening and reconstruction of Seaside Boulevard as a genuine 100 foot 
marginal roadway with separate lanes. 

The extension of Seaside Boulevard in front of Fort Wadsworth should also be considered as a future 
development. It has been indicated that the Army would not object to a new bulkhead and drive in front 
of this Fort, similar to the one constructed across the way at Fort Hamilton. 

All this property should be placed within the fire limits immediately, and the property on the west 
side of Seaside Boulevard should be rezoned for residential purposes. There is no time to be lost as the 
Board of Aldermen has already refused to include this area within the fire limits, and the property owners 
are insisting on the right to put the old type of dangerous frame-constructed amusement places adjacent 
to the new boardw alk. 

It is estimated that the cost of the land taking to accomplish the plan above outlined is $600,000 and 
the cost of demolition of old buildings and necessary construction is $675,000. 

The present conditions at these three beaches, and the changes proposed in this memorandum, are 
illustrated by maps, photographs, and drawings with appropriate captions. I believe that these illustra- 
tions will explain better than a more detailed report, just what is proposed. 

After an opportunity has been afforded for public discussion of these recommendations, proposals look- 
ing toward definite action will be submitted to you and to the Board of Estimate and Apportionment, and 
if financing of the Rockaway improvement through the Marine Parkway Authority 7 proves to be sound, 
appropriate amendments will be prepared to the Marine Parkwav Authoritv Act. 

In presenting this report I wish to acknowledge the invaluable assistance of Raymond P. McNuIty. 
Counsel to the Long Island State Park Commission, A. K. Morgan, Consulting Engineer and former Su- 
perintendent of Jones Beach State Park, and Sidney Shapiro, Assistant Chief Engineer of the Long 
Island State Park Commission, as well as that of the executives and engineers of the City Park 
Department. 

Verv trulv yours, 

ROBERT MOSES. 

Commissioner. 



[8] 



CONEY ISLAND 




BROOKLYN 




[10] 




PROPOSED PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT AT CONEY ISLAND 

A new wide beach extending from Stillwell Avenue to Ocean Parkway will be provided 
by relocating tke boardwalk in a straight line as shown in the drawing. Expanded recre- 
ational areas will be established on both east and west sides of the present municipal 
bathhouse, the front of which will be rebuilt to accommodate the relocated boardwalk. 



[11] 





Tke present city recreational facilities along the boardwalk will 
be expanded under tke proposed plan and similar facilities will be 
provided east of tbe municipal batbhouse sbown in tbe background. 

[12] 




Tkis general air view of Coney Island clearly indicates the 
haphazard development of the boardwa Ik in the past with 
the consequent lack of width of beach. 



[I 



The air view at the left shows the beach section to be im- 
proved between Stillwell Avenue and Ocean Parkway, as 
indicated in the development plan below. The lost beach 
shown in the foreground of the air view on he left will be 
restored under the proposed plan. 




CONEY -ISLAND-PARK- 

• SROOKL YN ■ 
i | Df PARTMCNT OF PARK J 

O IOO 100 loo too joo 

JCALC in fttT COMMITT££ ON dCACHSS 



These unsightly and unsanitary under-boardwalk refresh- 
ment stands will he eliminated. 




Section of boardwalk to he relocated and improved. 




Over 16,000,000 persons visit Coney Island each year dur- 
ing trie summer season. About 9,000,000 arrive by subway 
and trolley, and 7,000,000 by automobile. 



[17] 




Erosion at Coney Island for years has been the cause of a 
great loss of beach. This old photograph shows the Brighton 
Beach Hotel, originally erected 600 feet from the water, 
being moved back from the eroded shore line in 1888, only 
ten years after its construction. The building is being moved 
after numerous attempts at protection from the sea have 
failed. 



[18] 



The heavy black line indicates the route of the boardwalk 
after relocation. A large amount of additional beach will be 
made available under this plan. 



[19] 




Congestion along Coney 
Island s narrow beach 
front, shown at left, will 
he considerably relieved 
under the proposed plan 
of widening the beach. 
This 2/2 mile-long strip 
of beach with the board- 
walk and other structures 
located for the most part 
along the edge of high 
water provides only 57 
acres of sand beach for 
bathers. 



An equivalent length of beach at Jones Beach 
State Park, shown below, with the boardwalk set 
back a safe distance from the surf, provides 155 
acres of sand beach, with capacity for three times 
as many bathers. 




[20] 



ROCKAWAY BEACH 




QUEENS 




[22] 




The proposed plan of improvement at Rock away Beach includes the acquisition of land 
adjacent to the boardwalk to a depth of 200 feet, 100 feet of which will be used for the 
protection of the boardwalk and for play areas and for the ultimate construction of two 
municipal bathhouses with adjoining parking spaces; the remaining 100 feet will be used 
for a marginal boulevard. The plan also includes widening of Cross Bay Boulevard over 
Beach Channel with a plaza to the beach, and elevation of the Long Island Railroad tracks. 

[25 1 



Erosion of the beach 
between Beach 60th 
Street and Beach 
80th Street is being 
combated by repairs 
and extensions to 
jetties. 





3oardwa/k. 



feecreationa/ and landscaped Area 



Sectional plan showing present and proposed conditions 
along the beach front, and back of the boardwalk. 



[24] 




CHIPS 





Typical signs and 
encroachments 
along the board- 
walk. These will be 
eliminated under 
the plan of develop- 
ment. 




Mm m 
\M IB 

ill 



■Pil fill 1 

Q U 




a 



D C Q D 

SQfig 
1 a i& a H 




Ft on 

□ DA 




0Q 



deouatk. 



3£CT/OA/ 5/-/OW/AJ6 

P££5£/VTz. P/?0P05£D 

C0/VD/r/0/V5 
/?OC/<A WA Y BfA CM 



Dept. of Parks 
Commiftcc* on Bosches 



[25] 




£> £r A C V 



a I l a /J t i c 



o c & a lI 



Development plan showmg .he proposed improvement between Beach 73rd Street and Beach 109th Street 
Marginal boulevard, recreational areas and parking spaces, with sites for future 
bathhouses will be provided north of the boardwalk. The Long Island Railroad 
tracks wdl be elevated to eliminate the grade crossings, making the space under the 
structure available ror parking. 



[26] 





A dilapidated tent colony. Intke background are bungalows and flats. 

[28] 




Location plan snowing access to the Rockaways by way of Cross Bay 
Boulevard and the new Marine Parkway Bridge completed in 1937. 

[29] 



This air view shows tKe location of the proposed central 
plaza to connect tKe south end of the Cross Bay Boulevard 
bridge with the new marginal boulevard to be built back of 
the boardwalk. The entire block from bay to beach between 
Beach 94th Street and Beach 95th Street will be utilized 
for the plaza. 



[30] 



rP3 



BEACH CHANNEL BRIDGE 
CROSS BAY BOULEVARD 

The present roadway over this bridge is 
36 feet wide and is the cause of a serious 
traffic bottleneck. It is proposed to widen 
this structure to eliminate the conges- 
tion. Over five million cars a year use 
Cross Bay Boulevard traveling to and 
from the Rockaways. 




[31] 




North end of site of proposed 
Central Plaza extending from 
Cross Bay Boulevard to trie 
boardwalk. 



Railroad crossing at Beach 
Channel Drive. The rapid 
transit plan would provide 
for elevation of the tracks and 
provide parking space under 
the elevated structure. 




South end of site of proposed 
Central Plaza. 



. 4 



I 




Elimination of the railroad crossings by building an elevated 
structure for rapid transit will provide badly needed parking 
space under the elevated tracks. 




Delation of The. Project 
To Highway Systems 



LE GEN 

AbSEMftLY DISTRICT 
C 3 TOTAL ARJLA, 1H 5Q. KAlULS 

DENSITY PER. SQ.MILE OF TOTAL At£A 
/ \ PERCENTAGE OF INCREASE »N 

V /poruLKTtoR n^o - i^-so 

CENTER. OF POrULATIOK 
M HEW VOBJCOTY ACCOB-RJDIM 
TO U.S- CENSUS- WlO-fl} 




OUTH BEACH 




STAT EN ISLAND 




PROPOSED PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT AT SOUTH BEACH. STATEX ISLAND 




The South Beach boardwalk is 40 feet wide and 7,000 feet 
long. In this view, existing buildings can be seen about 50 
feet back of the boardwalk. 




■ 

■ 

The south half of the beach is built up with small shacks 
shown here. 



[41] 



The space between 
the present build- 
ings and the new 
boardwalk varies 
from 200 feet to 50 
feet. This view is 
taken at the south 
end of the area look- 
ing north. 




Plan of proposed development showing new Seaside Boule- 
vard, parking spaces, play areas and sites for future bath- 
houses. 




[42] 




[45] 





SOUTH BEACH 



Engraved and Printed 
By 

The Moore Press, Inc., New York 
>128 




AVERY 
OMSCS